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N-channel, or N-type semiconductor (N is the first letter of Negative): In a silicon crystal (or germanium crystal) doped with a small amount of impurity phosphorus (or germanium), the semiconductor atom (such as silicon atom) is contaminated by impurities. By atom substitution, four of the five outer electrons of the outer layer of the phosphorus atom form a covalent bond with the surrounding semiconductor atoms, and an extra electron is almost unbound and easily becomes a free electron. Thus, the N-type semiconductor becomes a semiconductor having a high electron concentration, and its conductivity is mainly due to the free electron conduction.